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Beginners Guide to Molecular Biology

Sep 30, 2010

Life: A definition

It is generally accepted that for something to be considered alive it must demonstrate each of the following characteristics: Movement, Reproduction, Consumption, Growth, Organization, and Stimulus Response.

Definition of Life

How to Define Life

Are You Dead Or Alive

Cell Biology: Structure and components of the cell

Cells are the smallest structural components of life, and they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Organisms are composed of cells, and cells arise from other cells. Cell components include the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), mitochondria, microtubules, microfilaments, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, centrioles, secretory vesicles, and ribosomes.

Principles of Cell Biology

Animal Cell Structure

The Cell

Plant Cell

Example of Cells

Cells come in many different shapes and sizes and may be simple or complex depending on their function. Examples include plant cells, animal cells, blood cells, nerve cells, skin cells, and so on.

Cell Types

Types of Neurons

An Introduction to Biological Cells

Mitosis: Normal cell division

Mitosis is nuclear division of the cell, resulting in the creation of two identical daughter cells. The phases of mitosis are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, and telophase.

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Tutorial

An Introduction To Mitosis


Meiosis: Cell division and gametogenesis

Meiosis is a form of cell division that produces gametes. During the formation of gametes, the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.

Meiosis Animation

What?s Meiosis?


From Chromosome to DNA: Unfolding our story

The DNA in cells is packed into structures called chromosomes. Humans normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each of their cells.

Learn Genetics

DNA and Chromosomes

Chromosomes, DNA, and Genes

DNA Structure: The molecule of DNA unplugged

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents. It is a double-stranded helical macromolecule that contains deoxyribose sugar and the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.

Introduction to DNA Structure

DNA: Structure

DNA Structure

From DNA to RNA: Sending the message...transcription

Transcription is the transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule. This process occurs in the nucleus of the cell.

Transcription Detail

DNA Transcription

Transcription: The Movie

RNA Structure: The messenger and its helpers

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is a type of nucleic acid made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil.

What is RNA

Types of RNA

DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis

From RNA to Protein: The cell factory

DNA translation is the process that converts the information stored in the messenger RNA into protein. This process occurs on the surface of ribosomes.

From Gene to Protein

Protein Synthesis

The Synthesis of Proteins

Protein Structure and Diversity

Proteins are biological polymers made from amino acid monomers. There are thousands of different types of proteins, each having a unique three-dimensional structure that corresponds to a specific function. There are seven major classes of proteins: structural proteins, contractile proteins, storage proteins, defensive proteins, transport proteins, signal proteins, and enzymes.


Basic Concepts of Protein Structure

Examples of Protein Structures

Classes of Proteins

Amino Acids

Amino acids are organic molecules containing a carboxyl group and an amino group. Proteins are formed from just 20 separate amino acids.

Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids

The Chemical Nature of Amino Acids

Molecular Engineering: Expression systems

An expression system is a system made specifically to produce gene products. It consists of a gene and the molecular equipment necessary for the transcription of DNA into mRNA and then the translation of mRNA into protein.

Protein Expression

Expression Systems

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